Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner

feedburner count


Bonda kak Sue
HAJJAH SITI AMINAH BT TAHIR telah kembali ke Rahmatullah pada Ahad, 20 Jun 2010 (7 Rejab 1431H). Semoga Allah merahmati rohnya dan ditempatkan dalam golongan hambaNya yang beriman. Amiiin... Al-Fatihah..

Terima kasih kepada yang sudi menghadiahkan Fatihah kepada bonda. Semoga Allah swt juga memberkati saudara-i...Wassalam.

PNEUMONIA: A Killing Infection

Labels: ,

    What is Pneumonia?

    Pneumonia or lung infection occurs when a person's lungs become inflamed, most commonly caused by a bacterial or viral infection (virus). Some less common causes are fungal infections and parasite invasions. It can also be caused by inhaling (breathing in) vomit or other foreign substances. Pneumonia can be found in just one of the patient's lungs, or in both. It is important that pneumonia is diagnosed as soon as possible so that treatment can begin. The number of fatalities associated with pneumonia are very small if treatment is followed with a doctor or hospital.

In all cases, the lungs' air sacs fill with pus , mucous, and other liquids and cannot function properly. This means oxygen cannot reach the blood and the cells of the body.

    Pneumonia, is contagious. Any time a person suffering from pneumonia coughs or sneezes, she releases a mist of fluid into the air. This fluid can contain the bacteria that caused the pneumonia. Another individual may walk by and breath that bacteria in without even knowing it. The bacteria then travels down the esophagus and settles in the air sacs of the lungs. As it grows, the air sacs fill with fluid and the individual begins to feel sick. Without treatment, the patient will continue to get sicker.

What Causes Pneumonia?
  1. There are about 30 different causes of pneumonia. However, they all fall into one of these categories:

    • Infective pneumonia: Inflammation and infection of the lungs and bronchial tubes that occurs when a bacteria (bacterial pneumonia) or virus (viral pneumonia) gets into the lungs and starts to reproduce.

    • Aspiration pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs and bronchial tubes caused by inhaling vomit, mucous, or other bodily fluids. Aspiration pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling certain fumes from such chemicals as bug sprays, pool cleaners, gasoline, or other substances. This kind of pneumonia cannot be spread to other people.

Nice To Know:

Pneumonia can also be defined by how much of the lung is involved.

  • In lobar pneumonia, one section (lobe) of a lung is affected.

  • In bronchial pneumonia (or bronchopneumonia), patches throughout both lungs are affected.

Facts about Pneumonia:

  • Pneumonia is a serious illness that affects one out of every 100 people each year.

  • Pneumonia can be caused by bacteria or viruses, or by inhalation of vomit or certain chemicals.

Infective Pneumonia
  1. Bacterial pneumonia can attack anyone. The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in adults is a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae or Pneumococcus. Pneumococcal pneumonia occurs only in the lobar form.

    An increasing number of viruses are being identified as the cause of respiratory infection. Half of all pneumonias are believed to be of viral origin. Most viral pneumonias are patchy and the body usually fights them off without help from medications or other treatments.

    Pneumococcus can affect more than the lungs. The bacteria can also cause serious infections of the covering of the brain (meningitis), the bloodstream, and other parts of the body.

    Nice To Know:

    The viruses and bacteria that cause pneumonia are contagious and are usually found in fluid from the mouth or nose of an infected person. Pneumonia can spread by coughs and sneezes, by sharing drinking glasses and eating utensils with an infected person, and contact with used tissues or handkerchiefs.

    Handwashing is important when around a person with pneumonia, since the bacteria and viruses can also be spread to your hands and then to your mouth.

    Aspiration Pneumonia

    Inhaling vomit, irritating fumes, or other substances can result in aspiration pneumonia. Agents such as petroleum solvents, dry cleaning fluid, lighter fluid, kerosene, gasoline, and liquid polishes and waxes are the most likely causes. Pulmonary edema, or fluids in the lung from injury, can develop rapidly. With repeated exposure, the lungs may lose elasticity and small airways may become obstructed. This can lead to increased reactive airway disease and chronic lung disease in adults.

    Nice To Know:

    Although most cases of pneumonia are caused by a viral or bacterial infection, the disease can also be caused anything that obstructs the bronchial tubes. Tumors, peanuts, hard candies, or small toys in the bronchial tubes can trap bacteria, viruses, or fungi, resulting in pneumonia.

  2. Diagnosis:

    In order to diagnose pneumonia, a doctor must first examine the patient's symptoms. A patient will most likely experience some chest pain or discomfort due to consistent coughing. This is often followed by a fever of over 100 degrees in both children and adults. If the pneumonia is severe, the patient may even have some trouble breathing normally. Some other symptoms include: chills, fatigue, coughing up blood and headaches.

    1. The doctor will perform
      a thorough medical history and performing a physical examination and listen to the patient's lungs. Bacterial pneumonias often come on suddenly; creating a cough that produces mucous that is often colored or "rusty", fever, and pain along the chest wall. The doctor can usually hear fluid in the lungs of a patient who has pneumonia. If the patient has a slight case of pneumonia, sometimes the doctor can't hear anything. The doctor may then order a chest X-ray to confirm or rule out the pneumonia.

    Infections caused by the Mycoplasma pneumoniae species of bacteria and viruses tend to develop more slowly, after a few days of flu-like symptoms. They can cause a hacky or barky cough, headache, and pain under the breastbone.

    The Physical Examination

    The most important diagnostic tool for pneumonia may be the stethoscope. In pneumonia, as air passes through mucous and fluids in the lungs, it creates sounds called rales and rhonchi. The doctor will strongly suspect pneumonia if rales are heard on one side of the chest and while the patient is lying down.

    The doctor may also tap lightly on the person's chest, a diagnostic tool called "percussion". A dull thud instead of a hollow drum-like sound may indicate that the lung has become firm and inelastic from inflammation, called consolidation; or that fluid may be collecting in between the layers of the lung membrane, called pleural effusion.

    Several tests may be ordered to help in the diagnosis:

    • Chest x-rays may show signs of infection in the lungs. Different types of pneumonia often will have different patterns on the x-ray.

    • Blood and sputum tests may be performed to collect a specimen if the doctor needs to determine the organism causing the pneumonia.

    • A lung biopsy may be performed in severe cases.

    Other Diagnostic Procedures

    In persons with life-threatening pneumonias more aggressive diagnostic procedures may be required.

    • Thoracentesis is done to remove and analyze fluid from the pleura, the thin membrane that lines the outside of the lung and the chest cavity. Any accumulation of fluid between the layers of the pleura is called a pleural effusion. Fluid in the pleura is withdrawn using a long thin needle inserted between the ribs and analyzed in the laboratory.

    • A bronchoscopy may be performed if the physician wants to see inside the lung. In this test, a tube is inserted through the nose or mouth. The tube acts like a telescope into the body, allowing the physician to view the wind-pipe and major airways for pus, abnormal mucous, or other problems.

    • The physician may ask you to breathe into an instrument called a spirometer that measures the amount of air you breathe. This test, called a spirometry, can help to determine how well the lungs are functioning.

    • Some of the bacteria that can cause pneumonia, such as Legionella, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia, cannot be seen with an ordinary microscope. They are found using special culture techniques or by performing blood tests that detect antibodies to the organisms.

    • Aspiration pneumonias cause changes in the chest x-ray that can be seen six to 24 hours after inhalation. Symptoms include respiratory distress indicated by grunting, cough, and fever after the aspiration of hydrocarbons, foreign substances, or bodily fluids. Symptoms may develop in minutes or hours depending on the volume and nature of the aspirated substance.


      Treatment depends on the cause and severity of the pneumonia. Antibiotics are the first line of attack to get rid of bacterial pneumonia. They are very effective if taken as prescribed, but are ineffective against viral pneumonia. If the pneumonia is severe, the antibiotics may be given over the course of a few weeks instead of the standard 10 days. The infected patient must also get plenty of rest to give his body time to heal. Patients should drink plenty of clear liquids and eat as they can. If the patient is not progressively getting better, he may need some extra attention from the hospital. This can include oxygen treatments and stronger antibiotics.

      Treating Infective Pneumonia

    Although the treatment for infective pneumonia depends on the cause of the condition, some simple steps can help speed recovery from pneumonia:

    • Medications should be taken exactly as prescribed by a physician. If it is not helping, call the doctor. Do not quit taking it unless told to do so by a doctor.

    • Take over-the-counter medicines such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to help control pain and fever.

    • Use a cool-mist humidifier or vaporizer to increase air moisture and to make it easier to breathe. DO NOT use hot steam.

    • Rest in bed until body core temperature returns to normal (98.6 degrees F or 37 degrees C) and chest pains and breathing problems are gone. Drink six to eight glasses of liquids daily to help keep mucous thin and easy to cough up.

    Treatments For Aspiration Pneumonia

    Treatments for aspiration pneumonia focus on breathing support. A breathing tube called an endotracheal tube is usually inserted into the trachea and oxygen is pumped into the lungs.

    Suction may be used to clear the airways and to get any remaining chemical or vomit out of the way. Antibiotics are given only if a secondary lung infection develops.

    Recovery From Pneumonia

    How well a person recovers from pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia and the person's general health. Most people with pneumonia recover completely. However, in infants under one year of age, the elderly, and those who are already seriously ill, pneumonia can sometimes be fatal.


    Some forms of bacterial pneumonia can be prevented with a vaccine (pneumococcal vaccine). The vaccine does not protect against most types of viral pneumonia or the pneumonia that people with low immunity tend to develop.

    In most people, vaccination is needed only once in a lifetime. However, others, including those people at highest risk for serious disease, may need to be vaccinated a second time. Individuals should consult their physicians to determine if a second vaccination is recommended.

    Those who should get vaccinated include:

    • People over age 65

    • Anyone with a serious chronic illness, such as diabetes or heart disease.

    Nice To Know:

    Pregnant or nursing women and children under 2 years old should not be vaccinated with the pneumococcal vaccine. Routine revaccination of adults is not recommended.

    • The vaccine for the flu (pneumovax) can help prevent one type of viral pneumonia. Since the flu virus changes from year to year, this shot needs to be given once each year in order to be effective and should also be given to people who are over 65 or who have serious illnesses.

    • Pneumococcal vaccination is appropriate at any time of the year but is most often given at the same time as the influenza vaccine in the early to mid-Fall.

    How-To Information:

    Personal methods to avoid pneumonia

    Prevent pneumonia by taking measures to avoid the organisms that cause respiratory infections, including colds and flu. Always wash hands before eating and after going outside.

    Ordinary soap is okay. Expensive antibacterial soaps add little protection, particularly against viruses.

    • Eat a daily diet that includes foods rich in antioxidants, such as fresh, dark-colored fruits and vegetables and other nutrients.

    • Increase lung capacity through brisk walking and other aerobic exercises. Breathing exercises, which train us to take slow, deep, relaxed breaths and exhale through pursed lips, may also be helpful.

    • Do not smoke.

    To avoid aspiration pneumonia:

    • Open a window when you use cleaning products, especially when you are in a small room.

    • Do not spray or use chemicals outside when it's windy. If you must work in the wind, make sure the chemicals are blowing away from you instead of toward you. Wear a mask over your mouth and nose, and wear clothing that protects your skin.

    • Read and follow all safety directions on the labels of any chemical you use.


Post a Comment

Komen Tentang Blog Ini:

Related Posts with Thumbnails

Photo Albums at WiddlyTinks.com
Lilypie Kids Birthday tickers
***KEREDHAAN ALLAH terletak pada keredhaan kedua orang tua (ibu bapa), dan KEMURKAAN ALLAH terletak pada kemarahan orang tua***HR At-Tarmidzi.
Lilypie Kids Birthday tickers
Daisypath Anniversary tickers
Kasihanilah KAMI dan SAUDARA2 ISLAM KAMI... Ampuni dosa2 kami...Sesungguhnya Engkau Maha Pengasih lagi Maha Pengampun...
LAPIS...Lapis...Lapis...MY PASSION...

I Love Cheesecake.......!!!
.........and I love indian foods!!!

Sabda Rasulullah s.a.w;
"Seorang wanita yang mentaati suaminya serta menjaga solat dan puasanya, maka tertutuplah pintu-pintu neraka baginya dan masuklah ia ke mana-mana syurga yang disukainya..."
Dan... Syurga itu di bawah tapak kaki ibu...

Anok Tupai I & II ~Halim Yazid, Layaaannn..........

Jom kita Tai chi...
Warm up lah dulu...
Yeaah...Gerak kiri/kanan cam nak bersilat...
Pusing bahu n Lenggang kiri/kanan...
Bongkok n Pusing kepala..!
Lor... Ko amik gambo ker..?
Adehh... Sakit pinggang la plak..!
Hahaha.... Pasal tak leh stop ni...?

*The tale 0f you and I*

you gave walking sticks to others

yet you yourself were limping

you offered a lending hand

but it was you who needed help

you wore shields and armours

but it wasnt the outside that needed protection

you claimed others as foes and threats

yet you stabbed your very own heart

you blamed the time for being envious

was it not you who made the clock?

you walked the road with glitters and jewels

but back in home you slept on dirt

you conquered the lands and the oceans and skies

yet you moaned and screamed in dreams

you were the king of glorious men

but you were held captive of unseen strings

you claimed yourself a proud free man

yet you were chained to your old ventriloquist>

"By the power of Truth...."