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AL-FATIHAH


*************************BismillahirRahmanirRahim*************************
Bonda kak Sue
,
HAJJAH SITI AMINAH BT TAHIR telah kembali ke Rahmatullah pada Ahad, 20 Jun 2010 (7 Rejab 1431H). Semoga Allah merahmati rohnya dan ditempatkan dalam golongan hambaNya yang beriman. Amiiin... Al-Fatihah..

Terima kasih kepada yang sudi menghadiahkan Fatihah kepada bonda. Semoga Allah swt juga memberkati saudara-i...Wassalam.
Al-Fatihah...

Eye Disease: Cataract

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Cataracts




What is a cataract?

Inside the eye, there is a lens which helps us to focus on
what we see. As a part of the normal aging process, the
lens can slowly become cloudy. This cloudiness of the lens
is called a cataract. In some people, the cloudiness can
become severe enough that it decreases vision. In other
words, the cataract has become visually significant.



Who gets cataracts?

Most people who develop cataracts are older than age 60. The
cataract forms as part of the normal aging process. Two conditions
which may cause the development of
cataract earlier than age 60
are
diabetes and injury to the eye. Certain medications such as
steroids
may also cause cataract formation.

How do I know if I have a cataract?

People who have cataracts often notice a decrease in their vision.
For example, they may have
difficulty reading or driving. Another
common problem is
glare. Because of glare, people with cataracts
may find it
harder to see when there are bright lights on, such as
when looking at the oncoming headlights of a car. An eye physician
can tell if you have a cataract by examining your eyes.



How are cataracts treated?

People often think that cataracts can be removed with a laser.
This is
not true. Cataracts cannot be removed with a laser. In
addition,there is
no medicine one can take to treat a cataract.
Cataract can be removed through a surgery.
It is an outpatient
surgery that can be done at a hospital OR in an ambulatory
surgery centre.
Cataracts are treated by microscopic surgery.
In cataract micro-surgery, mild sedation is given and the eye is
numbed, either with eye drops alone or with an injection around
the eye. Then a
tiny incision of a few milimetres is made in the
cornea and an ultrasonic probe is inserted into the eye,broken up
the cataract by its wave and the cloudy lens is removed through
the probe.
This is called phaco-emulsification. A clear, plastic lens
is then put in the eye to REPLACE the cloudy lens.
Following
cataract surgery, most people will experience substantial
improvement in their vision.

Who performs cataract surgery?

Eye physicians and surgeons (ophthalmologists) are medical
doctors
, M.D.'s, who have undergone specialized training in
ORDER to be able perform cataract surgery. They are experienced
in all aspects of cataract surgery including the latest micro-surgical
techniques.

Average Cost For Cataract Surgery

Phaco Surgery | Springfield IOL | Springfield
Microscopic Surgery-Phaco Emulsification

The Risks and Benefits of Cataract Surgery




What are the risks associated with cataract surgery?

Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed type of eye
surgery. In the vast majority of cases, approximately
95% of
the time, the
surgery is uncomplicated. Cataract surgery usually
results in
improved vision and a well satisfied patient. However,
cataract surgery should never be trivialized. In a small percentage
of patients, events occur which can lead to less than ideal results.
Most of these events are known risks of the surgery itself and can
occur even if the operation is performed well by an experienced
surgeon. The occurrence of these events is often
unpredictable.
Patients should
be aware of such possibilities when they decide
to proceed with surgery
. Some of the most common risks are
reviewed in this article.

Endophthalmitis

Ophthalmic surgeons normally make great efforts at the time
of surgeryto reduce the possibility of introacular infection,
which is called "endophthalmitis". Patients usually receive topical
antibiotic eye drops n the day of surgery. The surface of the eye
and the skin around the eye are disinfected with antiseptic
compounds, the patient's face except the eye is covered with
sterile drapes. Sterile techniques are used for all instruments,
similar to those used for all modern surgeries. After the surgery
is completed, surgeons prescribe topical antibiotic eye drops.
Nonetheless, even with these precautions, endophthalmitis still
occurs in approximately one out of 3,000 cases. Symptoms
and signs of endophthalmitis include excessive eye redness,
pain, light sensitivity, and worsening vision.

In some cases, the patients may be
fairly comfortable on the first
day or so after urgery, but then worsen in terms of pain, vision,
and light sensitivity several days later
.
Patients who undergo
cataract surgery should be instructed to
call their ophthalmologist
immediately if they worsen in these ways
. If a patient develops
endophthalmitis, intraocular antibiotics are often injected INTO
the eye to minimize the spread of the infection
. Sometimes an
additional surgery (
vitrectomy) is performed to remove the
jelly-like substance
of the eye; this may help control the infection.


Cystoid Macular Edema

The retina is the neural tissue which lines the entire inside of
the back part the eye
. The very center of the retina is called
the
macula, which is responsible for central vision. After cataract
surgery,
inflammation can sometimes cause retinal blood vessels
to leak fluid which accumulates in the macula
, causing decreased
central vision.
This swelling is referred to as "cystoid macular edema".
When vision is affected by macular edema, the ophthalmologist may
recommend a specialized test, called a fluorescein angiogram, in ORDER
to determine the extent of swelling. Ophthalmologists often treat
macular edema with
topical steroid eye drops or non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory eye drops
which help quiet the inflammation, often
improving the situation over weeks or months. Sometimes
injections
of steroids behind the eye,
or even intra-ocular vitrectomy surgery
are useful in improving the vision.


Retinal Detachment

A retinal detachment occurs when liquid vitreous fluid gets through
a fine tear in the retina, allowing it to separate abnormally FROM
the back wall of the eye.
A retinal detachment may cause a curtain
across part or all of the vision of the eye.
Retinal detachments can
occur in patients who
have not had any prior eye surgery, especially
in patients who are highly
nearsighted. However, cataract surgery
increases the risk of retinal detachment. After cataract surgery,
retinal detachments occur in approximately
1.5% of patients. You
should contact your ophthalmologist immediately if you develop a
curtain blocking the vision, flashes of light like lightening streaks, or
new floating spots in your vision.
These symptoms can sometimes
herald a retinal detachment.

Posteriorly Dislocated Lens Material

In some instances, lens material can fall INTO the back cavity
(vitreous cavity) of the eye
. Often small pieces of posteriorly
dislocated lens material are well tolerated by the eye without problems.
When larger pieces are dislocated, the ophthalmologist may recommend
a
second surgery, called a vitrectomy, to remove the lens material. This
emoval
prevents excessive inflammation FROM developing.


Choroidal Hemorrhage

Infrequently and unpredictably during cataract surgery, acute bleeding
can occur in the choroid, which is the delicate pattern of blood vessels
underlying and nourishing the retina. Although this complication, called
"choroidal hemorrhage" is more common among elderly patients, it is
truly unpredictable. In some cases of choroidal hemorrhage, the bleeding
is localized, and patients do well. In more severe cases of choroidal
hemorrhage, visual loss can be substantial.

Information about the risks associated with cataract surgery

Before cataract surgery, ophthalmologists usually discuss the risks,
benefits and alternatives of the surgery. If unexpected events occur
at the time of surgery, or develop after the surgery, the ophthalmologic
surgeon will discuss the particular implications and help formulate a
specific treatment plan.


Source:
1-Cataracts- Yichieh Shiuey, MD; Peter K. Kaiser, MD
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School

2-Cataract Surgery- Vincent J. Patalano II, MD
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Massachusetts Eye and Ear
Somerville Eye Center










1 comments:
gravatar
toby magmire said...
August 30, 2012 at 10:34 PM  

There are many disease which can be very dangerous for anyone and by having that people can get permanent loss of eye. Many disease which can give this condition.

eye diseases and conditions

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