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Bonda kak Sue
HAJJAH SITI AMINAH BT TAHIR telah kembali ke Rahmatullah pada Ahad, 20 Jun 2010 (7 Rejab 1431H). Semoga Allah merahmati rohnya dan ditempatkan dalam golongan hambaNya yang beriman. Amiiin... Al-Fatihah..

Terima kasih kepada yang sudi menghadiahkan Fatihah kepada bonda. Semoga Allah swt juga memberkati saudara-i...Wassalam.

Ramadhan And Rules For Fasting


Fasting in the holy month of Ramadan is one of the foremost of the five pillars of Islam, as well as being among the greatest of the symbols of Islam. That fasting has many purposes relating both to the Lordship of God and thanksgiving for His bounties, and to man’s individual and collective life, as well as to his self-training and self-discipline, thus respond to that magnificent and universal Mercy with a comprehensive and harmonious act of collective worship.

Fasting in the month of Ramadan is compulsory on every Muslim adult. The Arabic word sawm is used for fasting. The word sawm (plural siyam) literally means 'to refrain', but as an Islamic term, it means refraining from food, drinks and sexual activity from dawn to sunset. Allah says in the Al-Quran;

'O you who believe, siyam is prescribed on you as it was prescribed to those before you so that you may become self-restrained.' Al-Baqarah (2-183):

The importance of Siyam in Ramadan is clearly expressed in several sayings of the Prophet s.a.w. It is reported by Abu Hurairah r.a that the Prophet s.a.w said:

'He who fasts during Ramadan with faith and seeks his reward from Allah will have his past sins forgiven; he who prays during the night in Ramadan with faith and seeks his reward from Allah will have his past sins forgiven; and he who passes Lailat al- Qadr in prayer with faith and seeks his reward from Allah will have his past sins forgiven.' (Bukhari and Muslim)

Fasting in Ramadan is practiced by Muslims all over the world. The most significant aspect of Siyam is the development of Allah-consciousness (Taqwa) in the heart and the soul of a fasting Muslim. Fasting is the key to a true, sincere, comprehensive and universal thanksgiving. Many people are unable to appreciate most of the bounties they enjoy since they suffer no hunger. A piece of dry bread, for example, means nothing as Divine bounty for those who are full, especially if they are rich, although it is, as even testified by his sense of taste, a very valuable bounty of God in the sight of a believer at the time of breaking his fast. Everyone, whether the richest king or the poorest of people, are favored, in the holy Ramadan, with a heart-felt thanksgiving by understanding the value of Divine bounties.

It is in holy Ramadan that the selfhood of everyone, whether the richest or the poorest, understands that, rather than owning itself, it is owned by One Other, and rather then being free, it is a servant. Unless it is ordered, or permitted, it is unable to do even the most common thing like eating and drinking, and thereby its illusory lordship is shattered, it can admit to servanthood and performs its real duty, which is thanksgiving.

Fasting during holy Ramadan, does not cause the poor stomach to suffer illness because of over-eating without enough time allowed for proper digestion. Yet, causes even the most heedless and stubborn to feel their weakness and innate poverty. Hunger becomes an important consideration for them and reminds them how fragile their bodies are. They come to perceive to what extent they need compassion and care and, giving up haughtiness, feel a desire to take refuge in the Divine Court in perfect helplessness and destitute, and rise to knock at the door of Mercy with the hand of tacit thanksgiving, provided, of course, that heedlessness has not yet corrupted the individual completely. Fasting does not cause the poor stomach to suffer illness because of over-eating without enough time allowed for proper digestion.

Refraining from food and such is essential during fast but it is not sufficient. One must abstain from immoral behavior and attitude as well. Excellence in fasting, aside from its preventing the satisfaction of the stomach, is possible through refraining from sins committed by the senses or members of the body, such as the eyes, ears, heart, mind, and imaginative and contemplative faculties, and using them, instead, in the acts of worship particular to each. For example, the one who fasts, should prevent his tongue from lying, backbiting, bad language and indecent talk, and make it busy with the recitation of the Quran, glorification of God, seeking His forgiveness, and calling His blessing upon the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. In the same way, he should prevent his eyes from looking at, and his ears from listening to, the forbidden things. He should, instead, use his eyes to see such things as those which, for example, will give a spiritual lesson or moral warning; and use his ears to listen to the Quran and truths. When the stomach, which is like a big factory in the body, is stopped from working, the other members, which may be likened to very small workshops in comparison with the stomach, can, in fact, easily be made to follow it.

The Prophet of Allah is reported to have said:

'If one does not abandon falsehood in words and deeds, Allah has no need for his abandoning of his food and drink.' (Al-Bukhari)

The rewards for the good deeds done in Ramadan are multiplied by a thousand. According to one hadith, ten rewards are given for each letter of the Wise Quran. The recitation of a single letter means ten good deeds, and brings forth ten fruits of Paradise. However, in the whole month of Ramadan, the reward for each letter of the Quran is multiplied not by ten, but by a thousand, even by thousands for some particular verses like the Verse of the Throne. The reward is still greater on the Friday nights of holy Ramadan. Furthermore, the reward for each letter of the holy Quran recited in the Night of Lailatul Qadar is multiplied by thirty thousand. Thus, the Quran, each of whose letters yields thirty thousand permanent fruits of Paradise, becomes in Ramadan like a huge blessed tree which produces for believers millions of permanent fruits of Paradise. Consider, then, how holy and profitable a trade this is, and know in how great a loss those are who do not appreciate the letters of the Quran!

Fasting is mandatory on every Muslim who is sane, adult, able and resident. The following exemptions apply:
  1. the insane;
  2. children who are not adolescent yet;
  3. the elderly and chronically ill for whom fasting is unreasonably strenuous; Such persons are required to feed at least one poor person every day in Ramadan for which he or she has missed fasting.
  4. pregnant women and nursing may postpone the fasting at a later time;
  5. the ill and the travellers can also defer their fasting.
    Allah says in the Qur'an, Surah Al-Baqarah:

    'But if anyone is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period should be made up by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put you to difficulties.'
  6. Women during the period of menstruation or of postchildbirth confinement. Fasting during these periods is forbidden and should be made up later, a day for a day.

Duration of fast:

Fasting starts everyday in Ramadan at the break of dawn, which is also the start of the Salatul Fajr time. Fasting ends at sunset or with the call of Salatul Maghrib.

Validity of fast:

The validity of fasting depends on the following:
  1. Abstaining from food, liquids and sexual activity from dawn to sunset.
  2. The intention to fast must be made every day before dawn. The intention(niyyah) may be made during night before going to sleep or it can also be made at the time of Suhoor before dawn. Suhoor is eating before fasting. It should be as close to Fajr time as possible. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) says:
    'Partake Suhoor, for there is blessing in Suhoor' (Hadith Bukhari, Muslim)
    It is desirable to break the fast as soon as possible after sunset. Breaking the fast with dates or water is a tradition of the Prophet. Following is one of the Doa' for breaking fast:
    'Allahumma laka sumtu wa 'ala rizqika aftartu' (O Allah! For You did I fast and with Your bounties did I break the fast.)
The things which invalidate fast are of two kinds. The first one requires Qada (only making up missed days), the other one not only requires Qada but also Kaffarah (a penalty).

The following are the things that require Qada only:

  1. Eating or drinking intentionally. This includes non-nourishing items taken by mouth.
  2. Deliberately causing oneself to throw up.
  3. The beginning of menstruation or post-childbirth bleeding even in the last moment before sunset.
  4. Ejaculation for reasons other than sexual intercourse.
  5. Intending to break the fast before sunset even if one changes his mind, since intention is one of the pre-requisites of the validity of fasting.
  6. Eating, drinking or having intercourse after dawn on the mistaken assumption that it is not dawn yet. Similarly, engaging in these acts before Maghrib on the mistaken assumption that it is already sunset.
Things require Qada and also Kaffarah are the following:

Sexual intercourse during fasting(dawn to dusk). The penalty is to fast an additional period of 60 continuous days. If one is not able to do so then he must feed sixty poor people-one average meal each.

Before the days of the Muhammad(S.A.W.), slavery was a common practice in the Arab world. Islam eliminated slavery from the society in a very short period of time. A useful approach was to allow people free a slave as a charity or as a penalty for a sin. Thus during the time of the Prophet(S.A.W.), setting a slave free was the penalty one must pay as a kaffarah, if he or she had a slave.

What does not break the fast:

  1. "If anyone forgets that he is fasting and eats or drinks, he should complete his fast, for it is only Allah who has fed him and given him drink" (A Hadith from Muslim).
  2. Unintentional vomiting.
  3. Swallowing things which are not possible to avoid, such as one's saliva, street dust, smoke, etc.
  4. Brushing the teeth.
  5. Injection or intra-venous which is solely medical and not nutritional.

Breaking of fast under exceptional conditions:

Muslims are permitted to break the ordained fast of Ramadan when there is danger to their health. In this situation a Muslim should make up his fast later at any other time of the year.

Thank you for reading.

Source: The way to truth.


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